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Can fiction embody truths about its subject-matter? How does music express emotions? These are studied in translation rather than in the Latin original, though a glance at Aquinas's remarkably readable Latin can often be useful. The subject will be studied in one of two sets of texts The fathers of the English Dominican Province edition, , rev. This paper will include an optional question containing passages for comment. This subject may not be combined with subject Duns Scotus and Ockham are, together with Aquinas, the most significant and influential thinkers of the Middle Ages. The purpose of this subject is to make you familiar with some fundamental aspects of their theological and philosophical thought.

As to Scotus, these include the proof of the existence and of the unicity of God the most sophisticated one in the Middle Ages and the issues about causality that it raises, the theory of the existence of concepts common to God and creatures the univocity theory of religious language , the discussion about the immateriality and the immortality of the human soul, and the reply to scepticism. These are studied in translation rather than in the Latin original, though a glance at the Latin can often be useful.

Spade Hackett , pp. Ockham : Philosophical Writings , tr. Boehner Hackett , pp.

Other Logics

The texts are studied in translation rather than the Latin original. The purpose of this paper is to enable you to make a critical study of some of the ideas of one of the greatest of all philosophers. Immanuel Kant lived from to The 'Critique' is his greatest work and, without question, the most influential work of modern philosophy. It is a difficult but enormously rewarding work. This is largely because Kant, perhaps uniquely, combines in the highest measure the cautious qualities of care, rigour and tenacity with the bolder quality of philosophical imagination.

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Its concern is to give an account of human knowledge that will steer a path between the dogmatism of traditional metaphysics and the scepticism that, Kant believes, is the inevitable result of the empiricist criticism of metaphysics. Kant's approach, he claims in a famous metaphor, amounts to a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy. Instead of looking at human knowledge by starting from what is known, we should start from ourselves as knowing subjects and ask how the world must be for us to have the kind of knowledge and experience that we have. Kant thinks that his Copernican revolution also enables him to reconcile traditional Christian morality and modern science, in the face of their apparently irreconcilable demands in the one case, that we should be free agents, and in the other case, that the world should be governed by inexorable mechanical laws.

He argues that morality is grounded in reason. What we ought to do is what we would do if we acted in a way that was purely rational. Many of the questions raised by German and French philosophers of the 19th and early 20th centuries were thought to arise directly out of Kant's metaphysics, epistemology and ethics: Hence the title of this subject, the purpose of which is to enable you to explore some of the developments of and departures from Kantian themes in the work of Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre and Merleau-Ponty.

Students typically focus their study on only two chosen authors. Hegel and Schopenhauer delineate global, metaphysical systems out of which each develops his own distinctive vision of ethical and especially in the case of Hegel political life. Husserl will interest those pupils attracted to problems in ontology and epistemology such as feature in the Cartesian tradition; his work also serves to introduce one to phenomenology, the philosophical method later developed and refined by Heidegger, Sartre and Merleau-Ponty.

In Heidegger and Sartre, that method is brought to bear on such fundamental aspects of human existence as authenticity, social understanding, bad faith, art and freedom. Merleau-Ponty who trained as a psychologist presents a novel and important account of the genesis of perception, cognition and feeling, and relates these to themes in aesthetics and political philosophy. While this is very much a text-based paper, many of the questions addressed are directly relevant to contemporary treatments of problems in epistemology and metaphysics, in aesthetics, political theory and the philosophy of mind.

Robert C. In order to understand the world of politics, we also need to know which views of politics and society people have when they make political decisions, and why we recommend certain courses of action rather than others. This purpose of this subject is to enable you to look at the main ideas we use when we think about politics: why do we have competing views of social justice and what makes a particular view persuasive, possibly even right? What happens when a concept such as freedom has different meanings, so that those who argue that we must maximise freedom of choice are confronted with those who claim that some choices will actually restrict your freedom?

Is power desirable or harmful? Would feminists or nationalists give a different answer to that question? Political theory is concerned with developing good responses to problems such as: when should we obey, and when should we disobey, the state? But it is also concerned with mapping the ways in which we approach questions such as: how does one argue in favour of human rights? In addition, you will explore the main ideologies, such as liberalism, conservatism and socialism, in order to understand their main arguments and why each of them will direct us to different political solutions and arrangements.

Written as a dialogue between Socrates and others including the outspoken immoralist Thrasymachus, it is primarily concerned with questions of the nature of justice and of what is the best kind of life to lead. These questions prompt discussions of the ideal city -which Karl Popper criticised as totalitarian -, of education and art, of the nature of knowledge, the Theory of Forms and the immortality of the soul. You are expected to study the work in detail; the examination contains a question requiring comments on chosen passages, as well as a choice of essay questions.

The purpose of this subject is to give you the opportunity to make a critical study of one of the most important works in the history of philosophy. Whereas this leads Plato to pose grand questions in metaphysics and political theory, it leads Aristotle to offer close analyses of the structure of human action, responsibility, the virtues, the nature of moral knowledge, weakness of will, pleasure, friendship, and other related issues.

Much of what Aristotle has to say on these is ground-breaking, highly perceptive, and still of importance in contemporary debate in ethics and moral psychology. Set translation: Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics translated and with notes by T. Irwin Hackett. Please note that this paper is under review and the Faculty is very likely to withdraw it in the near future, with material covered in it likely to be added to remaining papers. Students should not expect this paper to be available for their Finals and should consult their tutors if considering it.

The purpose of this subject is to enable you to study some classic texts from which emerged modern logic and philosophy of language. Frege invented and explained the logic of multiple generality quantification theory and applied this apparatus to the analysis of arithmetic.

Other Logics: Alternatives To Formal Logic In The History Of Thought And Contemporary Philosophy

Russell continued this programme, adding some refinements the theory of types, the theory of descriptions , and he applied logic to many traditional problems in epistemology. The texts are dense and sophisticated, but they are elegant and full of challenging ideas. Ability to understand logical symbolism is important, and previous work in philosophical logic would be advantageous. The purpose of this subject is to enable you to study some of the most influential ideas of the 20th century. These writings are famous not just for their content but also for their distinctive style and conception of philosophy.

There is much critical discussion about the relation between those aspects of Wittgenstein's work. Wittgenstein covers a great range of issues, principally in philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. In philosophy of language, one key topic is the nature of rules and rule-following. What is involved in grasping a rule; and how can I tell, in a new case, what I have to do to apply the rule correctly? Indeed, what makes it the case that a particular move at this stage is the correct way of applying the rule; is there any standard of correctness other than the agreement of our fellows?

Other topics include: whether language is systematic; the relation between linguistic meaning and non-linguistic activities; whether concepts can be illuminatingly analysed. Other, equally important, topics include the nature of the self, of introspection and of visual experience, and the intentionality the representative quality of mental states. Most generally, can we as Wittgenstein thought avoid Cartesianism without lapsing into behaviourism?

Formal Logic is an extremely demanding and rigorous subject, even for those who have Mathematics A Level. If you lose your way in it, there is liable to be no way of avoiding disaster. But granted these caveats, the subject is a delight to those who enjoy formal work and who are good at it. Its purpose is to introduce you to some of the deepest and most beautiful results in logic, many of which have fascinating implications for other areas of philosophy. There are three sections. Candidates will be permitted to select questions from any of the three sections, and will be required to answer three questions in all.

The purpose of this subject is to enable you to come to grips with conceptual problems in special relativity and quantum mechanics. Only those with a substantial knowledge of physics should offer this subject, which is normally available only to candidates reading Physics and Philosophy.

As the name suggests, this subject is effectively a continuation of subject , building on it in breadth as well as depth.

Chapter 1.1: Introduction to logic

Topics in space-time physics and quantum mechanics are pursued with a new focus on some central questions in philosophy, in metaphysics, philosophical logic, and in the philosophy of probability. Also, you will be studying for the first time foundational questions in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The two are linked: in both cases the fundamental questions concern the existence and significance of certain symmetries; in the case of thermodynamics, they concern the emergence of a directedness to time from a formal framework which is manifestly time symmetric.

What is the relation of mathematical knowledge to other kinds of knowledge? Is it of a special kind, concerning objects of a special kind? If so, what is the nature of those objects and how do we come to know anything about them? If not, how do we explain the seeming difference between proving a theorem in mathematics and establishing something about the physical world? The purpose of this subject is to enable you to examine questions such as these.

Understanding the nature of mathematics has been important to many philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, and Kant, as a test or as an exemplar of their overall position, and has also played a role in the development of mathematics at certain points. Philosophy of science is applied epistemology and applied metaphysics.

It is theory of scientific knowledge and scientific method, including elements in philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, and metaphysics. It deals with metaphysical questions — about space, time, causation, ontology, necessity, truth — as they arise across the board in the special sciences, not just in physics.

History of logic - Wikipedia

Questions of method include questions of the theory-observation distinction, testability, induction, theory confirmation, and scientific explanation. They also include theory-change, whether inter-theoretic reduction, unification, or revolutionary change. They are at once questions about scientific rationality, and connect in turn with decision theory and the foundations of probability. They connect also with metaphysics, particularly realism: theory-change, scepticism, fictionalism, naturalism, the under-determination of theory by data, functionalism, structuralism, are all critiques of realism.

The subject also includes the study of major historical schools in philosophy of science. The most important of these is logical positivism later logical empiricism , that dominated the second and third quarters of the last century. In fact, some of the most important current schools in philosophy of science are broadly continuous with it, notably constructive empiricism and structural realism. The syllabus for this subject is the same as part A for paper This paper covers some of key questions about the nature of the mind dealt with by a variety of cognitive scientific disciplines: experimental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, linguistics and computational modelling of the mind.

Studying this paper will provide insight into the ways that contemporary scientific advances have improved our understanding of aspects of the mind that have long been the focus of philosophical reflection. It will also introduce you to a range of theoretical issues generated by current research in the behavioural and brain sciences. The lectures will also cover philosophical issues raised by some areas of cutting-edge research, such as: agency and its phenomenology; attention and neglect; cognitive neuropsychology; concepts; delusions; dual-process theories; dynamical systems, embodied and embedded cognition; evolutionary psychology and massive modularity; forward models and predictive coding; imagery; implicit processing e.

Lectures may also cover some historical background e. For those studying psychology, neuroscience, linguistics or computation, the paper is a crucial bridge to philosophy. But you do not need to be studying a scientific subject to take this paper, as long as you enjoy reading about scientific discoveries about the mind and brain. The paper will be of great interest to philosophers without a scientific background who want to understand the benefits and limitations of bringing scientific data to bear on deep issues in the philosophy of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davies, M. Smith eds. Also available on Weblearn. Clark, A. This paper is being withdrawn and will be last available for examination in Trinity Term The aims of this paper are to provide students with i an understanding of the philosophy and economics of the environment, and ii the ability to analyse critically key conceptual and applied issues in this field using both a philosophical approach and the theoretical and empirical tools of economics.

At the end of the course, students should have a knowledge of the philosophy and economics of the environment, including justice and goodness, theories of value, decision-making under uncertainty, market failures, international environmental agreements and the politics of the environment, intergenerational ethics and discounting, the choice of instruments, how human life and how nature may be val-ued, and the foundations of cost-benefit analysis including methods for valuing non-market goods.

The paper will cover, as appropriate, applications to environmental prob-lems such as climate change, acid rain, and local water and air pollution. The course will be taught and examined in an interdisciplinary way. This paper is available to all PPE students taking economics in the second and third year. This paper is a second course in logic. This course exposes you to logical systems that extend and enrich—or challenge and deviate from—classical logic, the standard propositional and predicate logic familiar from Prelims.

Why depart from classical logic? One systematic answer is provided by three-valued logics which deviate from classical logic by permitting their sentences to be neither truth nor false. Another example: classical logic only has truth-functional connectives. One systematic answer is provided by modal logic, which extends classical logic by allowing its connectives to be non-truth-functional. The course has two principal aims. The first is to give you the technical competence to work with, and prove things about, a number of logical systems which have come to play a central role across philosophy.

The second principal aim is for you to come to appreciate the diverse philosophical applications of these systems. The logic studied in this paper has important connections to the metaphysics of time and existence, a priori knowledge, obligation, vagueness, and conditionals, amongst many other issues, and is often presupposed in the contemporary literature on these topics.

Competence with the logic in this paper unlocks a wide range of fascinating work across philosophy. Like Prelims logic, the paper is mostly examined through problems not essays. The exam will require you to apply logic and prove things about it, as well as to critically discuss its philosophical applications. Consequently, the course calls for some technical ability but is considerably less mathematically demanding than the Logic and Set Theory paper B1 , studied in mathematics.

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This subject will better enable you to reason independently, critically, and rigorously about practical moral issues such as war, the treatment of animals, obligations to future generations, punishment, abortion, euthanasia, charitable giving, commodification of bodies and bodily organs, disability, racial and gender equality, and so on. You will be encouraged to consider the ways in which views about these issues can depend on questions in other areas of philosophy.

Relevant issues in metaphysics include when we begin to exist and how the misfortune of death might vary at different ages. Some issues in practical ethics depend on the analysis of concepts, such as species, race, and sex or gender, that are elucidated in the philosophy of biology. You will also be encouraged to find links among the practical issues themselves — for example, the way that war, self-defence, and punishment raise related questions about responsibility, desert, and liability, while other issues are connected through their raising similar questions about moral status, the limits of obligation, and the morality of causing individuals to exist.

It is primarily concerned with the questions of the nature of justice and of the best possible kind of life we can live. For this reason you will wish to look at some of the ideas and arguments to be found in other Platonic dialogues as well e. The examination includes a compulsory question with passages for translation and critical comment, as well as essay questions.

Translation: Grube, rev. Socrates and Theaetetus discuss the idea that knowledge might be no more than perception; Socrates argues that this would require a radical relativism of the sort developed by the sophist Protagoras, and a view of the world as constituted by fleeting perceptions rather than by enduring physical objects. The philosopher Parmenides had argued that we cannot think at all about what is not - perhaps on the basis that it is not there to be grasped or thought about - and that, since any change would involve the coming to be of something from what is not, there cannot in fact be any change: reality is a single unchanging thing.

Clearly Parmenides must be wrong: Plato attempts to show precisely why, and in the process significantly modifies some think he actually rejects his own Theory of Forms. You will be expected to have read both dialogues in Greek. Much of what Aristotle has to say on these is ground-breaking, highly perceptive, and still important in contemporary debate in ethics and moral psychology. The examination includes a compulsory question requiring comments on passages in English translation, as well as essay questions.

There will be a compulsory question containing passages for translation and comment from the books read in Greek; any passages for comments from the remaining books will be accompanied by a translation. There will also be essay questions. Text: Bywater OCT. Translation: Irwin Hackett , 2nd edn. Aristotle is not concerned in this work to do physics in the modern sense, , but to examine a number of important philosophical issues relating to the study of the natural world in general.

These include the concept of nature itself; the types of explanation required in natural science including the issue of the legitimacy of teleological explanation in biology ; chance; the nature of change; time; infinity; a critique of the various atomistic theories; and an extended argument designed to show that the changes in the natural world must depend in some way on an unchanging first principle.

Barnes, ed. He thinks that we should suspend judgment about absolutely everything — in other words, on having weighed up whether P, we should neither believe that P nor believe that not P whatever P may be. Most modern sceptics, with their denial of the impossibility of knowledge in this or that domain, look pale by comparison.

But I do think that it should be default that academic publishers — especially those that are university presses — put a significant amount of their back catalogue into the public domain e. By that point sales will usually be low, so neither press nor author will lose much, but the book can gain a new lease of life. Thank you very much for your guide. I have found it very useful in preparing for graduate school.

It is, however, ages since I have looked at it. I ought to do so again one day! Thank you for putting this together. I stopped the guide where it says its not for elementary logic. Are there any free resources you recommend to learn elementary logic? Hey Dr. I found your Guide really helpful for up-skilling in logic, sufficient to TA a class in Intermediate Logic—thank you. Thanks for the nice words about the Guide. Could you recommend me any texts I could read to familiarise myself with Baby Logic?

Oooh sorry, I saw your answer to Shealton George. Would be grateful for any other suggestions you can throw out. I think that in the latest version of Appendix there are references to other sections which has been removed see page 6,8, 33 and Please take a look at them. If so, what are your thoughts on it? I am not a philosopher with no academic prospects whatsoever but I am interested in formal logic and this exactly what I have been looking for!

Thank you again :. Hi, Thank you so much for putting this online! Or is this too early too? Thanks in advance.

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But Copi is at a more elementary level than the Guide is dealing with. I have found many books recommended in your guide encouraging so far as I could preview them online. But, equally, many become quite unencouraging to a poor student trying to teach himself logic from scratch when he sees their price. What is your opinion of this text? I would appreciate your comments on as many of these books as you have encountered. Do you have any opinion on his? But I have had other recommendations, so perhaps I should take another look! Some 50 years ago I learned a lot of the Dutch translation of J.

There seem to be a small mistake in the TYL, in section 4. Thank you so much for writing and posting this guide! I study philosophy in a continental philosophy-oriented college and, desperate as I was for advanced courses in logic, I almost cried when I found this jewel on the web ok, maybe not, but I was very happy. Maybe in the next edition!

Is this guide recommended for a complete amateur?

Hurley a good elementary book? Which approach is appropriate to a first course would depend very much on the aims and objectives of the course. It is interesting to note that recently there appeared another book on the set theory that seems to belong to the opposite pole in the sense that the strong accent is put on the axioms from the very beginning.

It is important to choose the right textbook from the start, that is why I am so captious as to finding the most appropriate one for me. I would avoid repeating the experience. Will the TYL study guide be updated for ? When in that case? I plan to start reading it soon. Yes … eventually. But mostly in minor, presentational ways. Though it is worth highlighting that The Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic which I warmly recommend anyway is now freely downloadable.

For things like changes of URLs, releases of new editions, small typographical issues and the like, I imagine it would be helpful to you the author for your readers to submit fixes you can adopt, rather than leaving comments registering the issue. Thanks for the wonderful guide! The book offers the perspective of a first-rate mathematician and is quite different in both content and style from other logic books.

Thank you for this wonderful guide. Any take on whether it too may be a good place to start before leaping into the TYL guide? The first pages are relevant to FOL. A rather uneven read, it seems to me, but … perhaps an illuminating supplement to the texts recommended above. I think the source is an University in Israel but I cannot read Hebrew so beats me. Thanks for your help! Hi First of all appreciate the effort by you professor Smith for the guide.

At last i wanted a bit help with fuzzy logic subjects if it is possible. Big thanks Professor. But that book is about 20 years old, and is a couple of steps up from really introductory. Hi again professor I moved according to your list in the logic study program and almost i read all books mentioned till i got to chapter 4. Thanks for your help.

Other Logics

Dear Prof. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Logic Matters. Skip to content. Find it on academia. A short excerpt on the general aim of the Guide and what it covers. And appendix to TYL, with comments on a number of the more general, multi-area, textbooks on mathematical logic. Last updated 14 December October 3, at pm. Smith, firstly, thank you for assembling all this information about Logic and writing the Guide.

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  4. Best Regards, Rodrigo de Almeida. Samuel T. Khoo says:. November 2, at am. Peter Smith says:. November 4, at pm. Andrew Lewis-Smith says:. May 10, at pm. Rowsety Moid says:. November 6, at pm. November 7, at am. Mige Krokben says:. January 7, at pm. January 18, at pm. There was a brief comment in version 10 of the Teach Yourself Logic Guide. Andrew Crawshaw says:. January 16, at pm. January 17, at pm. Gustavo Bandeira says:. Jan Noordhof says:. March 8, at pm. May 5, at pm.

    Michael Sloan says:. March 16, at pm. Troy Large says:. May 2, at pm. Thank you for your work in laying out a path to follow for self-study. Christofer Koch says:. May 13, at pm. Marco Loffa says:. May 18, at pm. June 2, at pm. Shealton George says:. July 26, at am.