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The sleeper and emerging reason is the much higher efficiency and greater refinement which will come about by using fuel cells which, we think, are the engines of the future. What the internal combustion engine did to coal-fired steam engines a century ago, natural-gas powered fuel cells will return the favor to the internal combustion engine. This is just around the corner, especially in transportation and such a change will be not just an evolution but a technological and infrastructural revolution and it will take a huge investment and market fluctuations. There is little chance that renewables, such as wind and solar, will play a significant role for decades and perhaps not even then.
In for the first time in history, natural gas has become the number two fuel for the world, surpassing coal, which held that rank for almost a century.
There is a second compelling reason why natural gas. Oil has led to wars.
Both World Wars and more recently two Gulf Wars had an obvious oil connection. Oil has always caused geopolitical vulnerabilities for the big energy users, the most obvious the United States. Natural gas will relieve tensions de facto. More than three dozen countries can deliver world-class natural gas supplies and they are as diverse as Peru and Bolivia, Namibia and Cameroon, and practically all former Soviet Asian Republics.
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None though is more compelling than Russia. Russia has an added quite important asset. It has a neighbor which, recent SARS notwithstanding, will be an energy market giant. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Russia's transition to a market economy has been tortuous to say the least.
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However, this book argues that the arguments and counter-arguments that pitch shock therapy against gradualism are wide of the mark and quite pointless. Indeed, the reasons for the warped outcomes can actually be traced back through the long sweep of Russian history. Decisions made in the distant past can fully influence policy- making in the present. Hedlund's thesis can, like this, be seen as influenced by the 'path dependency' theories of Paul David among others. Achieving Credible Commitment. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches.
A History of History. In a provocative analysis of European and American historical thinking and practice since the early In a provocative analysis of European and American historical thinking and practice since the early 18th century, A History of History confronts several basic assumptions about the nature of history.
Russian Path Dependence : A People with a Troubled History
Among these are the concept of historical realism, the belief View Product. Archaeologist's Book of Quotations. I do it because I do it because archeology is still the most fun you can have with your pants on. In her quest to make archaeology available to Biblical History: Book of Judges. Closer ties were forged between Romania and Moldova after the Romanian communist regime collapsed during a bloody popular uprising in December Moldova's pro-democracy movement, which owed its existence to Gorbachev's "perestroika" reforms, felt particularly threatened when news of the hard-line coup in Moscow broke.
It publicly endorsed Boris Yeltsin in his defiance of the plotters. We were risking a lot. We did not know what turn events would take, what the directives and decisions from Moscow would be.
But we resisted together, both during the putsch and after, and we began to think about Moldova's independence. Less than a week later, on 27 August, the parliament unanimously declared the country's independence, adopting the Romanian national anthem. The Moldovan parliament was among the first to declare the local Communist Party illegal. But once the euphoria subsided, Moldova's political and economic troubles resurfaced. Like most ex-Soviet republics, Moldova's agriculture-based economy was in shambles and poverty was already widespread.
In addition, the pro-Russian population of the Transdniester region on the left bank of the River Dniester -- which had already seceded from Moldova in -- was showing increasing signs of uneasiness over the fear that newly independent Moldova would seek reunification with neighboring Romania. A short but bloody war between Moldovan forces and pro-Russian separatists followed in the summer of , leaving several hundred people dead.
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The fighting was eventually contained by Russian troops already present in the Transdniester region. Ironically, despite the fear of the Transdniester separatists, reunification with Romania was never a serious political goal for Moldova. After the end of the Transdniester conflict and amid deepening economic troubles, Moldova gradually drifted apart from Romania and in scrapped the common anthem.
click here But reforms remained at a standstill while poverty grew. Elections in brought to power an alliance of reformist parties but also marked the return to parliament of the communists, who had been re-legalized in The economic crisis continued to deepen amid lackluster reforms, while political bickering between then-President Petru Lucinschi and parliament finally resulted in early elections this year and the communists' victory.